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        Working Conditions</font></H2> 
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          <p><FONT COLOR="#2C3568"><EM> International labour standards on occupational safety and health; the level and protection of wages; hours of work and rest; and conditions for home, night, and part-time work have time and again been found of critical importance for the global improvement of working conditions and the standard of living for workers over the years</EM></FONT> </p> 
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    <td colspan="2"> <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Wages </FONT></H3></td> 
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    <td><a href="C131_Minimum_Wage_Fixing_1970.htm">The Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 (No. 131)</a></td> 
    <td>Protects workers against excessively low wage rates. It obliges ratifying States to establish a system of minimum wages covering all categories of wage earners whose terms of employment are such that coverage would be appropriate. The elements which must be taken into consideration when determining the level of minimum wages include the needs of workers and their families, as well as economic factors at the national level. Representative organizations of employers and workers concerned or, where no such organizations exist, representatives of employers and workers concerned, must be consulted in connection with the establishment and operation of the wage fixing machinery. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 135.</td> 
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    <td>The Protection of Wages Convention, 1949, (No. 95)</td> 
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to provide for secure, full and prompt payment of wages in a manner which affords protection against abuse. This is based on the rule that wages shall be paid, in legal tender, regularly and directly to the worker. The Convention also lays down rules about payment of wages in kind, deductions from wages, attachment and assignment of wages. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 85.</td> 
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    <td><a href="C173_Protection_of_Workers_Claims_1992.htm">The Protection of Workers' Claims (Employer's Insolvency) Convention, 1992, (No. 173)</a></td> 
    <td>Aims to protect workers' claims in the event of an employer's insolvency. A ratifying State is obliged to establish a system of privilege so that workers are paid out of the assets of the insolvent employer before non-privileged creditors can be paid their share, or to ensure the payment of workers' claims through a guarantee institution. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 180.</td> 
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    <td colspan="2"> <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Hours of work and weekly rest</FONT><BR> 
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    <td>The Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1)</td> 
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to set the working hours of persons employed in any public or private industrial undertaking, with certain possible exceptions, at not more than eight in the day and forty-eight in the week.</td> 
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    <td> <p>The Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 (No. 14)</p> 
      <p>the Weekly Rest (Commerce and Offices), 1957 (No. 106)</p></td> 
    <td>Requires ratifying States to provide for a minimum of twenty-four consecutive hours of rest per week. Convention No. 106 is supplemented by Recommendation No 103.</td> 
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    <td>The Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1979 (No. 153) </td> 
    <td> <p>Applies to wage earning drivers working on motor vehicles engaged professionally in transport by road of goods or passengers. It obliges the ratifying State to lay down adequate standards concerning driving time and rest periods for these drivers in accordance with the standards set by the Convention. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 161.</p></td> 
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    <td colspan="2"> <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Paid leave</FONT><BR> 
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    <td><a href="C132_Holidays_with_Pay_1970.htm">The Holidays With Pay (Revised) Convention, 1970 (No. 132)</a></td> 
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to ensure paid annual holidays of three weeks or more.</td> 
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    <td><a href="C140_Paid_Educational_Leave_1974.htm">The Paid Educational Leave Convention, 1974 (No. 140)</a></td> 
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to promote education and training (vocational, general, social and civic, trade union) during working hours, with financial entitlements. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 148.</td> 
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    <td colspan="2"> <H3><Font color="#7D6241">General conditions of employment, night work, part-time work, and home work</FONT></H3></td> 
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    <td>The Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Convention, 1949, (No. 94)</td> 
    <td>Aims to ensure minimum international labour standards in the execution of public contracts. It covers all contracts involving the expenditure of public funds awarded by public authorities to another party employing workers for construction or demolition of public works, supply of services, manufacture of materials, etc. According to the Convention, public contracts shall include clauses ensuring to the workers concerned wages and other conditions which are not less favourable than those established for work of the same character by laws or regulations, collective agreements or the general level observed in the trade or industry concerned. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 84.</td> 
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    <td><a href="../women/C171_Night_Work_1990.htm">The Night Work Convention, 1990 (No. 171)</a></td> 
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to take specific measures required by the nature of night work, for the benefit of night workers in order to protect their health, assist them to meet family and social responsibilities, provide opportunities for occupational advancement, and adequately compensate them appropriately. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 178.</td> 
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    <td><a href="C175_Part-time_Work_1994.htm">The Part Time Work Convention, 1994 (No. 175)</a></td> 
    <td> Requires ratifying States to take measures to ensure that part-time workers receive the same protection as that accorded to comparable ful-time workers in respect of freedom of association, occupational safety and health, discrimination in employment. It requires also that a pro-rata approach be taken with respect to part-time workers' basic wage. It further calls for measures to be taken to ensure that part-time workers receive conditions equivalent to comparable full-time workers in the fields of maternity protection, termination of employment, paid annual leave and public holidays, and sick leave. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 182.</td> 
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    <td><a href="C177_Home_Work_1996.htm">The Home Work Convention, 1996 (No. 177)</a></td> 
    <td>requires that ratifying States adopt, implement and periodically review a national policy on home work aimed at improving the situation of homeworkers. The national policy shall promote, as far as possible, equality of treatment between home workers and other wage-earners. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 184.</td> 
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