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C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930 
</font></h3><font size=-2>
Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour 
(Note: Date of coming into force: 01:05:1932.) 
<br>Convention:C029 
<br>Place:Geneva 
<br>Session of the Conference:14 
<br>
        Date of adoption:28:06:1930 <br> 
</FONT><p> 
<p>
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,<p>
<p>
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its Fourteenth Session on 10 June 1930, and<p>
<p>
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to forced or 
compulsory labour, which is included in the first item on the agenda of the 
Session, and<p>
<p>
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of an international 
Convention,<p>
<p>
adopts the twenty-eighth day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and 
thirty, the following Convention, which may be cited as the Forced Labour 
Convention, 1930, for ratification by the Members of the International Labour 
Organisation in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the 
International Labour Organisation:<p>
<p>
<p> 
<p>
Article 1<p>
1. Each Member of the International Labour Organisation which ratifies this 
Convention undertakes to suppress the use of forced or compulsory labour in 
all its forms within the shortest possible period.<p>
<p>
2. With a view to this complete suppression, recourse to forced or compulsory 
labour may be had, during the transitional period, for public purposes only 
and as an exceptional measure, subject to the conditions and guarantees 
hereinafter provided.<p>
<p>
3. At the expiration of a period of five years after the coming into force of 
this Convention, and when the Governing Body of the International Labour 
Office prepares the report provided for in Article 31 below, the said 
Governing Body shall consider the possibility of the suppression of forced or 
compulsory labour in all its forms without a further transitional period and 
the desirability of placing this question on the agenda of the Conference.<p>
<p>
Article 2<p>
1. For the purposes of this Convention the term <i>  forced or compulsory labour 
</i> shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the 
menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself 
voluntarily.<p>
<p>
2. Nevertheless, for the purposes of this Convention, the term <i>  forced or 
compulsory labour  </i> shall not include--<p>
 (a) any work or service exacted in virtue of compulsory military service laws 
for work of a purely military character;<p>
 (b) any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of 
the citizens of a fully self-governing country;<p>
 (c) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a 
conviction in a court of law, provided that the said work or service is 
carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that 
the said person is not hired to or placed at the disposal of private 
individuals, companies or associations;<p>
 (d) any work or service exacted in cases of emergency, that is to say, in the 
event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as fire, flood, 
famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by 
animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstance that would 
endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the 
population;<p>
 (e) minor communal services of a kind which, being performed by the members 
of the community in the direct interest of the said community, can therefore 
be considered as normal civic obligations incumbent upon the members of the 
community, provided that the members of the community or their direct 
representatives shall have the right to be consulted in regard to the need for 
such services.<p>
<p>
Article 3<p>
For the purposes of this Convention the term <i>  competent authority  </i> shall 
mean either an authority of the metropolitan country or the highest central 
authority in the territory concerned.<p>
<p>
Article 4<p>
1. The competent authority shall not impose or permit the imposition of forced 
or compulsory labour for the benefit of private individuals, companies or 
associations.<p>
<p>
2. Where such forced or compulsory labour for the benefit of private 
individuals, companies or associations exists at the date on which a Member's 
ratification of this Convention is registered by the Director-General of the 
International Labour Office, the Member shall completely suppress such forced 
or compulsory labour from the date on which this Convention comes into force 
for that Member.<p>
<p>
Article 5<p>
1. No concession granted to private individuals, companies or associations 
shall involve any form of forced or compulsory labour for the production or 
the collection of products which such private individuals, companies or 
associations utilise or in which they trade.<p>
<p>
2. Where concessions exist containing provisions involving such forced or 
compulsory labour, such provisions shall be rescinded as soon as possible, in 
order to comply with Article 1 of this Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 6<p>
Officials of the administration, even when they have the duty of encouraging 
the populations under their charge to engage in some form of labour, shall not 
put constraint upon the said populations or upon any individual members 
thereof to work for private individuals, companies or associations.<p>
<p>
Article 7<p>
1. Chiefs who do not exercise administrative functions shall not have recourse 
to forced or compulsory labour.<p>
<p>
2. Chiefs who exercise administrative functions may, with the express 
permission of the competent authority, have recourse to forced or compulsory 
labour, subject to the provisions of Article 10 of this Convention.<p>
<p>
3. Chiefs who are duly recognised and who do not receive adequate remuneration 
in other forms may have the enjoyment of personal services, subject to due 
regulation and provided that all necessary measures are taken to prevent 
abuses.<p>
<p>
Article 8<p>
1. The responsibility for every decision to have recourse to forced or 
compulsory labour shall rest with the highest civil authority in the territory 
concerned.<p>
<p>
2. Nevertheless, that authority may delegate powers to the highest local 
authorities to exact forced or compulsory labour which does not involve the 
removal of the workers from their place of habitual residence. That authority 
may also delegate, for such periods and subject to such conditions as may be 
laid down in the regulations provided for in Article 23 of this Convention, 
powers to the highest local authorities to exact forced or compulsory labour 
which involves the removal of the workers from their place of habitual 
residence for the purpose of facilitating the movement of officials of the 
administration, when on duty, and for the transport of Government stores.<p>
<p>
Article 9<p>
Except as otherwise provided for in Article 10 of this Convention, any 
authority competent to exact forced or compulsory labour shall, before 
deciding to have recourse to such labour, satisfy itself--<p>
 (a) that the work to be done or the service to be rendered is of important 
direct interest for the community called upon to do work or render the 
service;<p>
 (b) that the work or service is of present or imminent necessity;<p>
 (c) that it has been impossible to obtain voluntary labour for carrying out 
the work or rendering the service by the offer of rates of wages and 
conditions of labour not less favourable than those prevailing in the area 
concerned for similar work or service; and<p>
 (d) that the work or service will not lay too heavy a burden upon the present 
population, having regard to the labour available and its capacity to 
undertake the work.<p>
<p>
Article 10<p>
1. Forced or compulsory labour exacted as a tax and forced or compulsory 
labour to which recourse is had for the execution of public works by chiefs 
who exercise administrative functions shall be progressively abolished.<p>
<p>
2. Meanwhile, where forced or compulsory labour is exacted as a tax, and where 
recourse is had to forced or compulsory labour for the execution of public 
works by chiefs who exercise administrative functions, the authority concerned 
shall first satisfy itself--<p>
 (a) that the work to be done or the service to be rendered is of important 
direct interest for the community called upon to do the work or render the 
service;<p>
 (b) that the work or the service is of present or imminent necessity;<p>
 (c) that the work or service will not lay too heavy a burden upon the present 
population, having regard to the labour available and its capacity to 
undertake the work;<p>
 (d) that the work or service will not entail the removal of the workers from 
their place of habitual residence;<p>
 (e) that the execution of the work or the rendering of the service will be 
directed in accordance with the exigencies of religion, social life and 
agriculture.<p>
<p>
Article 11<p>
1. Only adult able-bodied males who are of an apparent age of not less than 18 
and not more than 45 years may be called upon for forced or compulsory labour. 
Except in respect of the kinds of labour provided for in Article 10 of this 
Convention, the following limitations and conditions shall apply:<p>
 (a) whenever possible prior determination by a medical officer appointed by 
the administration that the persons concerned are not suffering from any 
infectious or contagious disease and that they are physically fit for the work 
required and for the conditions under which it is to be carried out;<p>
 (b) exemption of school teachers and pupils and officials of the 
administration in general;<p>
 (c) the maintenance in each community of the number of adult able-bodied men 
indispensable for family and social life;<p>
 (d) respect for conjugal and family ties.<p>
<p>
2. For the purposes of subparagraph (c) of the preceding paragraph, the 
regulations provided for in Article 23 of this Convention shall fix the 
proportion of the resident adult able-bodied males who may be taken at any one 
time for forced or compulsory labour, provided always that this proportion 
shall in no case exceed 25 per cent. In fixing this proportion the competent 
authority shall take account of the density of the population, of its social 
and physical development, of the seasons, and of the work which must be done 
by the persons concerned on their own behalf in their locality, and, 
generally, shall have regard to the economic and social necessities of the 
normal life of the community concerned.<p>
<p>
Article 12<p>
1. The maximum period for which any person may be taken for forced or 
compulsory labour of all kinds in any one period of twelve months shall not 
exceed sixty days, including the time spent in going to and from the place of 
work.<p>
<p>
2. Every person from whom forced or compulsory labour is exacted shall be 
furnished with a certificate indicating the periods of such labour which he 
has completed.<p>
<p>
Article 13<p>
1. The normal working hours of any person from whom forced or compulsory 
labour is exacted shall be the same as those prevailing in the case of 
voluntary labour, and the hours worked in excess of the normal working hours 
shall be remunerated at the rates prevailing in the case of overtime for 
voluntary labour.<p>
<p>
2. A weekly day of rest shall be granted to all persons from whom forced or 
compulsory labour of any kind is exacted and this day shall coincide as far as 
possible with the day fixed by tradition or custom in the territories or 
regions concerned.<p>
<p>
Article 14<p>
1. With the exception of the forced or compulsory labour provided for in 
Article 10 of this Convention, forced or compulsory labour of all kinds shall 
be remunerated in cash at rates not less than those prevailing for similar 
kinds of work either in the district in which the labour is employed or in the 
district from which the labour is recruited, whichever may be the higher.<p>
<p>
2. In the case of labour to which recourse is had by chiefs in the exercise of 
their administrative functions, payment of wages in accordance with the 
provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be introduced as soon as possible. 
3. The wages shall be paid to each worker individually and not to his tribal 
chief or to any other authority.<p>
<p>
4. For the purpose of payment of wages the days spent in travelling to and 
from the place of work shall be counted as working days.<p>
<p>
5. Nothing in this Article shall prevent ordinary rations being given as a 
part of wages, such rations to be at least equivalent in value to the money 
payment they are taken to represent, but deductions from wages shall not be 
made either for the payment of taxes or for special food, clothing or 
accommodation supplied to a worker for the purpose of maintaining him in a fit 
condition to carry on his work under the special conditions of any employment, 
or for the supply of tools.<p>
<p>
Article 15<p>
1. Any laws or regulations relating to workmen's compensation for accidents or 
sickness arising out of the employment of the worker and any laws or 
regulations providing compensation for the dependants of deceased or 
incapacitated workers which are or shall be in force in the territory 
concerned shall be equally applicable to persons from whom forced or 
compulsory labour is exacted and to voluntary workers.<p>
<p>
2. In any case it shall be an obligation on any authority employing any worker 
on forced or compulsory labour to ensure the subsistence of any such worker 
who, by accident or sickness arising out of his employment, is rendered wholly 
or partially incapable of providing for himself, and to take measures to 
ensure the maintenance of any persons actually dependent upon such a worker in 
the event of his incapacity or decease arising out of his employment.<p>
<p>
Article 16<p>
1. Except in cases of special necessity, persons from whom forced or 
compulsory labour is exacted shall not be transferred to districts where the 
food and climate differ so considerably from those to which they have been 
accustomed as to endanger their health.<p>
<p>
2. In no case shall the transfer of such workers be permitted unless all 
measures relating to hygiene and accommodation which are necessary to adapt 
such workers to the conditions and to safeguard their health can be strictly 
applied.<p>
<p>
3. When such transfer cannot be avoided, measures of gradual habituation to 
the new conditions of diet and of climate shall be adopted on competent 
medical advice.<p>
<p>
4. In cases where such workers are required to perform regular work to which 
they are not accustomed, measures shall be taken to ensure their habituation 
to it, especially as regards progressive training, the hours of work and the 
provision of rest intervals, and any increase or amelioration of diet which 
may be necessary.<p>
<p>
Article 17<p>
Before permitting recourse to forced or compulsory labour for works of 
construction or maintenance which entail the workers remaining at the 
workplaces for considerable periods, the competent authority shall satisfy 
itself--<p>
 (1) that all necessary measures are taken to safeguard the health of the 
workers and to guarantee the necessary medical care, and, in particular, (a) 
that the workers are medically examined before commencing the work and at 
fixed intervals during the period of service,  (b) that there is an adequate 
medical staff, provided with the dispensaries, infirmaries, hospitals and 
equipment necessary to meet all requirements, and (c) that the sanitary 
conditions of the workplaces, the supply of drinking water, food, fuel, and 
cooking utensils, and, where necessary, of housing and clothing, are 
satisfactory;<p>
 (2) that definite arrangements are made to ensure the subsistence of the 
families of the workers, in particular by facilitating the remittance, by a 
safe method, of part of the wages to the family, at the request or with the 
consent of the workers;<p>
 (3) that the journeys of the workers to and from the work-places are made at 
the expense and under the responsibility of the administration, which shall 
facilitate such journeys by making the fullest use of all available means of 
transport;<p>
 (4) that, in case of illness or accident causing incapacity to work of a 
certain duration, the worker is repatriated at the expense of the 
administration;<p>
 (5) that any worker who may wish to remain as a voluntary worker at the end 
of his period of forced or compulsory labour is permitted to do so without, 
for a period of two years, losing his right to repatriation free of expense to 
himself.<p>
<p>
Article 18<p>
1. Forced or compulsory labour for the transport of persons or goods, such as 
the labour of porters or boatmen, shall be abolished within the shortest 
possible period. Meanwhile the competent authority shall promulgate 
regulations determining, inter alia, (a) that such labour shall only be 
employed for the purpose of facilitating the movement of officials of the 
administration, when on duty, or for the transport of Government stores, or, 
in cases of very urgent necessity, the transport of persons other than 
officials, (b) that the workers so employed shall be medically certified to be 
physically fit, where medical examination is possible, and that where such 
medical examination is not practicable the person employing such workers shall 
be held responsible for ensuring that they are physically fit and not 
suffering from any infectious or contagious disease, (c) the maximum load 
which these workers may carry, (d) the maximum distance from their homes to 
which they may be taken, (e) the maximum number of days per month or other 
period for which they may be taken, including the days spent in returning to 
their homes, and (f) the persons entitled to demand this form of forced or 
compulsory labour and the extent to which they are entitled to demand it.<p>
<p>
2. In fixing the maxima referred to under (c), (d) and  (e) in the foregoing 
paragraph, the competent authority shall have regard to all relevant factors, 
including the physical development of the population from which the workers 
are recruited, the nature of the country through which they must travel and 
the climatic conditions.<p>
<p>
3. The competent authority shall further provide that the normal daily journey 
of such workers shall not exceed a distance corresponding to an average 
working day of eight hours, it being understood that account shall be taken 
not only of the weight to be carried and the distance to be covered, but also 
of the nature of the road, the season and all other relevant factors,  and 
that, where hours of journey in excess of the normal daily journey are 
exacted, they shall be remunerated at rates higher than the normal rates.<p>
<p>
Article 19<p>
1. The competent authority shall only authorise recourse to compulsory 
cultivation as a method of precaution against famine or a deficiency of food 
supplies and always under the condition that the food or produce shall remain 
the property of the individuals or the community producing it.<p>
<p>
2. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as abrogating the obligation on 
members of a community, where production is organised on a communal basis by 
virtue of law or custom and where the produce or any profit accruing from the 
sale thereof remain the property of the community, to perform the work 
demanded by the community by virtue of law or custom.<p>
<p>
Article 20<p>
Collective punishment laws under which a community may be punished for crimes 
committed by any of its members shall not contain provisions for forced or 
compulsory labour by the community as one of the methods of punishment.<p>
<p>
Article 21<p>
Forced or compulsory labour shall not be used for work underground in mines.<p>
<p>
Article 22<p>
The annual reports that Members which ratify this Convention agree to make to 
the International Labour Office, pursuant to the provisions of article 22 of 
the Constitution of the International Labour Organisation, on the measures 
they have taken to give effect to the provisions of this Convention, shall 
contain as full information as possible, in respect of each territory 
concerned, regarding the extent to which recourse has been had to forced or 
compulsory labour in that territory, the purposes for which it has been 
employed, the sickness and death rates, hours of work, methods of payment of 
wages and rates of wages, and any other relevant information.<p>
<p>
Article 23<p>
1. To give effect to the provisions of this Convention the competent authority 
shall issue complete and precise regulations governing the use of forced or 
compulsory labour.<p>
<p>
2. These regulations shall contain, inter alia, rules permitting any person 
from whom forced or compulsory labour is exacted to forward all complaints 
relative to the conditions of labour to the authorities and ensuring that such 
complaints will be examined and taken into consideration.<p>
<p>
Article 24<p>
Adequate measures shall in all cases be taken to ensure that the regulations 
governing the employment of forced or compulsory labour are strictly applied, 
either by extending the duties of any existing labour inspectorate which has 
been established for the inspection of voluntary labour to cover the 
inspection of forced or compulsory labour or in some other appropriate manner. 
Measures shall also be taken to ensure that the regulations are brought to the 
knowledge of persons from whom such labour is exacted.<p>
<p>
Article 25<p>
The illegal exaction of forced or compulsory labour shall be punishable as a 
penal offence, and it shall be an obligation on any Member ratifying this 
Convention to ensure that the penalties imposed by law are really adequate and 
are strictly enforced.<p>
<p>
Article 26<p>
1. Each Member of the International Labour Organisation which ratifies this 
Convention undertakes to apply it to the territories placed under its 
sovereignty, jurisdiction, protection, suzerainty, tutelage or authority, so 
far as it has the right to accept obligations affecting matters of internal 
jurisdiction; provided that, if such Member may desire to take advantage of 
the provisions of article 35 of the Constitution of the International Labour 
Organisation, it shall append to its ratification a declaration stating--<p>
 (1) the territories to which it intends to apply the provisions of this 
Convention without modification;<p>
 (2) the territories to which it intends to apply the provisions of this 
Convention with modifications, together with details of the said 
modifications;<p>
 (3) the territories in respect of which it reserves its decision.<p>
<p>
2. The aforesaid declaration shall be deemed to be an integral part of the 
ratification and shall have the force of ratification. It shall be open to any 
Member, by a subsequent declaration, to cancel in whole or in part the 
reservations made, in pursuance of the provisions of subparagraphs (2) and (3) 
of this Article, in the original declaration.<p>
<p>
  
<p>
Article 27<p>
<p>
The formal ratifications of this Convention under the conditions set forth in 
the Constitution of the International Labour Organisation shall be 
communicated to the Director-General of the International Labour Office for 
Registration.<p>
<p>
Article 28<p>
<p>
   1.  This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members whose 
ratifications have been registered with the International Labour Office.<p>
<p>
   2.  It shall come into force twelve months after the date on which the 
ratifications of two members of the International Labour Organisation have 
been registered with the Director-General.<p>
<p>
   3.  Thereafter, this Convention shall come into force for any Member twelve 
months after the date on which its ratification has been registered.<p>
<p>
Article 29<p>
<p>
   As soon as the ratifications of two Members of the International Labour 
Organisation have been registered with the International Labour Office, the 
Director-General of the International Labour Office shall so notify all the 
Members of the International Labour Organisation. He shall likewise notify 
them of the registration of ratifications which may be communicated 
subsequently by other Members of the Organisation.<p>
<p>
Article 30<p>
<p>
   1.  A Member which has ratified this Convention may denounce it after the 
expiration of ten years from the date on which the Convention first comes into 
force, by an Act communicated to the Director-General of the International 
Labour Office for registration.  Such denunciation shall not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is registered with the International 
Labour Office.<p>
<p>
   2.  Each member which has ratified this Convention and which does not, 
within the year following the expiration of the period of ten years mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph, exercise the right of denunciation provided for in 
this Article, will be bound for another period of five years and, thereafter, 
may denounce this Convention at the expiration of each period of five years 
under the terms provided for in this Article.<p>
<p>
Article 31<p>
<p>
   At the expiration of each period of five years after the coming into force 
of this Convention, the Governing Body of the International Labour Office 
shall present to the General Conference a report on the working of this 
Convention and shall consider the desirability of placing on the agenda of the 
Conference the question of its revision in whole or in part.<p>
<p>
Article 32<p>
<p>
   1.  Should the Conference adopt a new Convention revising this Convention 
in whole or in part, the ratification by a Member of the new revising 
Convention shall ipso jure involve denunciation of this Convention without any 
requirement of delay, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 30 above, if 
and when the new revising Convention shall have come into force.<p>
<p>
   2.  As from the date of the coming into force of the new revising 
Convention, the present Convention shall cease to be open to ratification by 
the Members.<p>
<p>
   3.  Nevertheless, this Convention shall remain in force in its actual form 
and content for those Members which have ratified it but have not ratified the 
revising convention.<p>
<p>
Article 33<p>
<p>
   The French and English texts of this Convention shall both be authentic.
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