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<HTML><head><TITLE>Employment Policies Conventions, No. 158, No. 88, No. 181, No. 159, No. 142 - International Labour Standards</title><meta name="keywords" content="termination of employment, employment services, private employment agencies, vocational rehabilitation, human resources, international labour standards">  <script language="JavaScript" src="/public/english/standards/norm/include/navbar.js"></script><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"></head>
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    <TD VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="85%"><H2 align="center"><font color="#7D6241">Employment 
        Policies Conventions</font></H2>
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          <div align="center"><FONT COLOR="#2C3568"><EM> In addition to the Priority 
            Convention on employment policy (No. 122), international labour standards 
            address the subjects of human resource and vocational training policy, employment services and agencies, and employment security</EM></FONT> 
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    <td colspan="2"><h3><font color="#7D6241">Employment Policy</font></h3>        
        
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    <td><a href="C122_employmentpolicies_1964.htm">The Employment Policy Convention, 
      1964 (No. 122)</a></td>
    <td>Aims to achieve full, productive and freely chosen employment. The Convention 
      requires, as a major goal, the declaration and pursuit of an active policy 
      designed to promote full employment with a view to stimulating economic 
      growth and development, raising levels of living, meeting manpower requirements 
      and overcoming unemployment and underemployment. This policy shall aim at 
      ensuring that there is work for all who are available for and seeking it, 
      that such work is as productive as possible and that there is freedom of 
      choice of employment. Each worker shall have the fullest possible opportunity 
      to qualify for, and use his other skills and endowments in a job for which 
      the worker is well suited, without discrimination. Employment policy shall 
      take due account of the stage and level of economic development and the 
      mutual relationships between employment objectives and other economic and 
      social objectives, and shall be pursued by methods that are appropriate 
      to national conditions and practices. The measures to be adopted for attaining 
      the specified objectives shall be decided and kept under review within the 
      framework of a co-ordinated economic and social policy. Finally, the Convention 
      provides for consultation of representatives of the persons affected by 
      the measures to be taken and, in particular, representatives of employers 
      and workers. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 122.</td>
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      <h3><font color="#7D6241">Human Resources and Vocational Training 
        Policy</font></h3></td>
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    <td><a href="C142_hrd_1975.htm">The Human Resources Development Convention, 1975 (No. 142)</a></td>
    <td>Provides that the ratifying State shall adopt and develop comprehensive 
      and co-ordinated policies and programmes of vocational guidance and vocational 
      training closely linked with employment, in particular through public employment 
      services. It specifies the elements that these policies and programmes shall 
      take into account (employment needs and opportunities, the stage and level 
      of a country's development and other economic, social and cultural objectives, 
      etc.), their aims (improving the abilities of the individual), the principles 
      to be followed (without any discrimination) and the educational and training 
      systems to be developed. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation 
      No 150.</td>
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    <td>The Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons), 1983 
      (No. 159) </td>
    <td>Provides that the ratifying State shall, in accordance with national conditions 
      and possibilities, implement a policy of vocational rehabilitation and employment 
      of disabled persons and ensure that the measures taken be available to all 
      categories concerned. The representative organizations of employers and 
      workers, as well as the representative organizations of and for disabled 
      persons, shall be consulted on the implementation of this policy which shall 
      be based on the principle of equal opportunity between disabled workers 
      (men and women) and workers generally (though not excluding special positive 
      measures). Suitably adapted services for vocational guidance and vocational 
      training, placement, employment, and so on, shall be made available to disabled 
      persons. The Convention provides for the development of these services in 
      rural areas and remote communities, as well as for the training of specialized 
      counsellors. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation No. 168.</td>
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      <h3><font color="#7D6241">Employment Agencies and Services</font></h3></td>
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    <td><a href="C181_private_empagency_1997.htm">The Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181)</a></td>
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to provide certain protections for workers who 
      are engaged by or engaged in employment through private employment agencies. 
      Standards for the regulation of such agencies are established. The Convention 
      is supplemented by Recommendation No. 186.</td>
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    <td>The Employment Services Convention, 1948 (No. 88)</td>
    <td>Obliges a ratifying State to create and maintain a free public employment 
      service which shall have the task of ensuring the best possible organisation 
      of the employment market. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation 
      No. 83.</td>
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      <h3><font color="#7D6241">Security of Employment</font></h3></td>
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    <td><a href="C158_termination_employment_1982.htm">The Termination of Employment Convention, 1982 (No. 158)</a></td>
    <td>Obliges ratifying States to establish, in conformity with the instrument, 
      the grounds upon which a worker can be terminated from employment. Employment 
      may not be terminated by the employer unless there is a valid reason connected 
      with the capacity or conduct of the worker or based on the operational requirements 
      of the undertaking. Union membership, filing a complaint against the employer, 
      acting as a worker representative, race, colour, sex, marital status, family 
      responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction, 
      social origin, absence from work during maternity leave, or temporary absence 
      for illness shall not be valid reasons for termination. The Convention establishes 
      procedural requirements as well. The Convention is supplemented by Recommendation 
      No. 166.</td>
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