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C155 Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 
</font></h3><font size=-2>
Convention concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working
Environment 
(Note: Date of coming into force: 11:08:1983.) 
<br>Convention:C155 
<br>Place:Geneva 
<br>Session of the Conference:67 
<br>Date of adoption:22:06:1981 
<br>
        <br> 
</FONT><p> 
<p>
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,<p>
<p>
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its Sixty-seventh Session on 3 June 1981, and 
<p>
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to safety 
and health and the working environment, which is the sixth item on the agenda 
of the session, and<p>
<p>
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of an international 
Convention,<p>
<p>
adopts the twenty-second day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and 
eighty-one, the following Convention, which may be cited as the Occupational 
Safety and Health Convention, 1981:<p>
<p>
<p> 
<p>
Part I. Scope and Definitions<p>
<p>
Article 1<p>
1. This Convention applies to all branches of economic activity.<p>
<p>
2. A Member ratifying this Convention may, after consultation at the earliest 
possible stage with the representative organisations of employers and workers 
concerned, exclude from its application, in part or in whole, particular 
branches of economic activity, such as maritime shipping or fishing, in 
respect of which special problems of a substantial nature arise.<p>
<p>
3. Each Member which ratifies this Convention shall list, in the first report 
on the application of the Convention submitted under article 22 of the 
Constitution of the International Labour Organisation, any branches which may 
have been excluded in pursuance of paragraph 2 of this Article, giving the 
reasons for such exclusion and describing the measures taken to give adequate 
protection to workers in excluded branches, and shall indicate in subsequent 
reports any progress towards wider application.<p>
<p>
Article 2<p>
1. This Convention applies to all workers in the branches of economic activity 
covered.<p>
<p>
2. A Member ratifying this Convention may, after consultation at the earliest 
possible stage with the representative organisations of employers and workers 
concerned, exclude from its application, in part or in whole, limited 
categories of workers in respect of which there are particular difficulties.<p>
<p>
3. Each Member which ratifies this Convention shall list, in the first report 
on the application of the Convention submitted under article 22 of the 
Constitution of the International Labour Organisation, any limited categories 
of workers which may have been excluded in pursuance of paragraph 2 of this 
Article, giving the reasons for such exclusion, and shall indicate in 
subsequent reports any progress towards wider application.<p>
<p>
Article 3<p>
For the purpose of this Convention--<p>
 (a) the term <i>  branches of economic activity  </i> covers all branches in which 
workers are employed, including the public service;<p>
 (b) the term <i>  workers  </i> covers all employed persons, including public 
employees;<p>
 (c) the term <i>  workplace  </i> covers all places where workers need to be or to 
go by reason of their work and which are under the direct or indirect control 
of the employer;<p>
 (d) the term <i>  regulations  </i> covers all provisions given force of law by 
the competent authority or authorities;<p>
 (e) the term <i>  health  </i> ,     in relation to work, indicates not merely the 
absence of disease or infirmity; it also includes the physical and mental 
elements affecting health which are directly related to safety and hygiene at 
work.<p>
<p>
Part II. Principles of National Policy<p>
<p>
Article 4<p>
1. Each Member shall, in the light of national conditions and practice, and in 
consultation with the most representative organisations of employers and 
workers, formulate, implement and periodically review a coherent national 
policy on occupational safety, occupational health and the working 
environment.<p>
<p>
2. The aim of the policy shall be to prevent accidents and injury to health 
arising out of, linked with or occurring in the course of work, by minimising, 
so far as is reasonably practicable, the causes of hazards inherent in the 
working environment.<p>
<p>
Article 5<p>
The policy referred to in Article 4 of this Convention shall take account of 
the following main spheres of action in so far as they affect occupational 
safety and health and the working environment:<p>
 (a) design, testing, choice, substitution, installation, arrangement, use and 
maintenance of the material elements of work (workplaces, working environment, 
tools, machinery and equipment, chemical, physical and biological substances 
and agents, work processes);<p>
 (b) relationships between the material elements of work and the persons who 
carry out or supervise the work, and adaptation of machinery, equipment, 
working time, organisation of work and work processes to the physical and 
mental capacities of the workers;<p>
 (c) training, including necessary further training, qualifications and 
motivations of persons involved, in one capacity or another, in the 
achievement of adequate levels of safety and health;<p>
 (d) communication and co-operation at the levels of the working group and the 
undertaking and at all other appropriate levels up to and including the 
national level;<p>
 (e) the protection of workers and their representatives from disciplinary 
measures as a result of actions properly taken by them in conformity with the 
policy referred to in Article 4 of this Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 6<p>
The formulation of the policy referred to in Article 4 of this Convention 
shall indicate the respective functions and responsibilities in respect of 
occupational safety and health and the working environment of public 
authorities, employers, workers and others, taking account both of the 
complementary character of such responsibilities and of national conditions 
and practice.<p>
<p>
Article 7<p>
The situation regarding occupational safety and health and the working 
environment shall be reviewed at appropriate intervals, either over-all or in 
respect of particular areas, with a view to identifying major problems, 
evolving effective methods for dealing with them and priorities of action, and 
evaluating results.<p>
<p>
Part III. Action at the National Level<p>
<p>
Article 8<p>
Each Member shall, by laws or regulations or any other method consistent with 
national conditions and practice and in consultation with the representative 
organisations of employers and workers concerned, take such steps as may be 
necessary to give effect to Article 4 of this Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 9<p>
1. The enforcement of laws and regulations concerning occupational safety and 
health and the working environment shall be secured by an adequate and 
appropriate system of inspection.<p>
<p>
2. The enforcement system shall provide for adequate penalties for violations 
of the laws and regulations.<p>
<p>
Article 10<p>
Measures shall be taken to provide guidance to employers and workers so as to 
help them to comply with legal obligations.<p>
<p>
Article 11<p>
To give effect to the policy referred to in Article 4 of this Convention, the 
competent authority or authorities shall ensure that the following functions 
are progressively carried out:<p>
 (a) the determination, where the nature and degree of hazards so require, of 
conditions governing the design, construction and layout of undertakings, the 
commencement of their operations, major alterations affecting them and changes 
in their purposes, the safety of technical equipment used at work, as well as 
the application of procedures defined by the competent authorities;<p>
 (b) the determination of work processes and of substances and agents the 
exposure to which is to be prohibited, limited or made subject to 
authorisation or control by the competent authority or authorities; health 
hazards due to the simultaneous exposure to several substances or agents shall 
be taken into consideration;<p>
 (c) the establishment and application of procedures for the notification of 
occupational accidents and diseases, by employers and, when appropriate, 
insurance institutions and others directly concerned, and the production of 
annual statistics on occupational accidents and diseases;<p>
 (d) the holding of inquiries, where cases of occupational accidents, 
occupational diseases or any other injuries to health which arise in the 
course of or in connection with work appear to reflect situations which are 
serious;<p>
 (e) the publication, annually, of information on measures taken in pursuance 
of the policy referred to in Article 4 of this Convention and on occupational 
accidents, occupational diseases and other injuries to health which arise in 
the course of or in connection with work;<p>
 (f) the introduction or extension of systems, taking into account national 
conditions and possibilities, to examine chemical, physical and biological 
agents in respect of the risk to the health of workers.<p>
<p>
Article 12<p>
Measures shall be taken, in accordance with national law and practice, with a 
view to ensuring that those who design, manufacture, import, provide or 
transfer machinery, equipment or substances for occupational use--<p>
 (a) satisfy themselves that, so far as is reasonably practicable, the 
machinery, equipment or substance does not entail dangers for the safety and 
health of those using it correctly;<p>
 (b) make available information concerning the correct installation and use of 
machinery and equipment and the correct use of substances, and information on 
hazards of machinery and equipment and dangerous properties of chemical 
substances and physical and biological agents or products, as well as 
instructions on how hazards are to be avoided;<p>
 (c) undertake studies and research or otherwise keep abreast of the 
scientific and technical knowledge necessary to comply with subparagraphs  (a) 
and (b) of this Article.<p>
<p>
Article 13<p>
A worker who has removed himself from a work situation which he has reasonable 
justification to believe presents an imminent and serious danger to his life 
or health shall be protected from undue consequences in accordance with 
national conditions and practice.<p>
<p>
Article 14<p>
Measures shall be taken with a view to promoting in a manner appropriate to 
national conditions and practice, the inclusion of questions of occupational 
safety and health and the working environment at all levels of education and 
training, including higher technical, medical and professional education, in a 
manner meeting the training needs of all workers.<p>
<p>
Article 15<p>
1. With a view to ensuring the coherence of the policy referred to in Article 
4 of this Convention and of measures for its application, each Member shall, 
after consultation at the earliest possible stage with the most representative 
organisations of employers and workers, and with other bodies as appropriate, 
make arrangements appropriate to national conditions and practice to ensure 
the necessary co-ordination between various authorities and bodies called upon 
to give effect to Parts II and III of this Convention.<p>
<p>
2. Whenever circumstances so require and national conditions and practice 
permit, these arrangements shall include the establishment of a central body.<p>
<p>
Part IV. Action at the Level of the Undertaking<p>
<p>
Article 16<p>
1. Employers shall be required to ensure that, so far as is reasonably 
practicable, the workplaces, machinery, equipment and processes under their 
control are safe and without risk to health.<p>
<p>
2. Employers shall be required to ensure that, so far as is reasonably 
practicable, the chemical, physical and biological substances and agents under 
their control are without risk to health when the appropriate measures of 
protection are taken.<p>
<p>
3. Employers shall be required to provide, where necessary, adequate 
protective clothing and protective equipment to prevent, so far is reasonably 
practicable, risk of accidents or of adverse effects on health.<p>
<p>
Article 17<p>
Whenever two or more undertakings engage in activities simultaneously at one 
workplace, they shall collaborate in applying the requirements of this 
Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 18<p>
Employers shall be required to provide, where necessary, for measures to deal 
with emergencies and accidents, including adequate first-aid arrangements.<p>
<p>
Article 19<p>
There shall be arrangements at the level of the undertaking under which--<p>
 (a) workers, in the course of performing their work, co-operate in the 
fulfilment by their employer of the obligations placed upon him;<p>
 (b) representatives of workers in the undertaking co-operate with the 
employer in the field of occupational safety and health;<p>
 (c) representatives of workers in an undertaking are given adequate 
information on measures taken by the employer to secure occupational safety 
and health and may consult their representative organisations about such 
information provided they do not disclose commercial secrets;<p>
 (d) workers and their representatives in the undertaking are given 
appropriate training in occupational safety and health;<p>
 (e) workers or their representatives and, as the case may be, their 
representative organisations in an undertaking, in accordance with national 
law and practice, are enabled to enquire into, and are consulted by the 
employer on, all aspects of occupational safety and health associated with 
their work; for this purpose technical advisers may, by mutual agreement, be 
brought in from outside the undertaking;<p>
 (f) a worker reports forthwith to his immediate supervisor any situation 
which he has reasonable justification to believe presents an imminent and 
serious danger to his life or health; until the employer has taken remedial 
action, if necessary, the employer cannot require workers to return to a work 
situation where there is continuing imminent and serious danger to life or 
health.<p>
<p>
Article 20<p>
Co-operation between management and workers and/or their representatives 
within the undertaking shall be an essential element of organisational and 
other measures taken in pursuance of Articles 16 to 19 of this Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 21<p>
Occupational safety and health measures shall not involve any expenditure for 
the workers.<p>
<p>
  
<p>
PART V.   PROVISIONS<p>
Article 22<p>
This Convention does not revise any international labour Conventions or 
Recommendations.<p>
<p>
Article 23<p>
   The formal ratifications of this Convention shall be communicated to the 
Director-General of the International Labour Office for registration.<p>
<p>
Article 24<p>
   1. This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members of the 
International Labour Organisation whose ratifications have been registered 
with the Director-General.<p>
<p>
   2. It shall come into force twelve months after the date on which the 
ratifications of two Members have been registered with the Director-General.<p>
<p>
   3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come into force for any Member twelve 
months after the date on which its ratifications has been registered.<p>
<p>
Article 25<p>
   1. A Member which has ratified this Convention may denounce it after the 
expiration of ten years from the date on which the Convention first comes into 
force, by an Act communicated to the Director-General of the International 
Labour Office for registration. Such denunciation should not take effect until 
one year after the date on which it is registered.<p>
<p>
   2. Each Member which has ratified this Convention and which does not, 
within the year following the expiration of the period of ten years mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph, exercise the right of denunciation provided for in 
this Article, will be bound for another period of ten years and, thereafter, 
may denounce this Convention at the expiration of each period of ten years 
under the terms provided for in this Article.<p>
<p>
Article 26<p>
   1. The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall notify all 
Members of the International Labour Organisation of the registration of all 
ratifications and denunciations communicated to him by the Members of the 
Organisation.<p>
<p>
   2. When notifying the Members of the Organisation of the registration of 
the second ratification communicated to him, the Director-General shall draw 
the attention of the Members of the Organisation to the date upon which the 
Convention will come into force.<p>
<p>
Article 27<p>
   The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall communicate 
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for registration in accordance 
with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations full particulars of all 
ratifications and acts of denunciation registered by him in accordance with 
the provisions of the preceding Articles.<p>
<p>
Article 28<p>
   At such times as may consider necessary the Governing Body of the 
International Labour Office shall present to the General Conference a report 
on the working of this Convention and shall examine the desirability of 
placing on the agenda of the Conference the question of its revision in whole 
or in part.<p>
<p>
Article 29<p>
   1. Should the Conference adopt a new Convention revising this Convention in 
whole or in part, then, unless the new Convention otherwise provides:<p>
<p>
a) the ratification by a Member of the new revising Convention shall ipso jure 
involve the immediate denunciation of this Convention, notwithstanding the 
provisions of Article 25 above, if and when the new revising Convention shall 
have come into force;<p>
<p>
b) as from the date when the new revising Convention comes into force this 
Convention shall cease to be open to ratification by the Members.<p>
   2. This Convention shall in any case remain in force in its actual form and 
content for those Members which have ratified it but have not ratified the 
revising Convention.<p>
<p>
Article 30<p>
   The English and French versions of the text of this Convention are equally 
authoritative.<p>
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