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<TITLE>International Labour Standards for special categories of workers</title>
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    <TD VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="85%"><H2><font color="#7D6241">International Labour Standards for special catagories of workers</font></H2> 
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        <BLOCKQUOTE> <FONT COLOR="#2C3568"><EM> Several international labour standards set norms for workers in particular occupations or sectors of activities</EM></FONT> </BLOCKQUOTE> 
      <A NAME="seafars"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Seafarers</FONT><BR> 
      <P>International labour standards addressing this group of workers are numerous.</P> 
      <A NAME="fisher"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Fishermen</FONT><BR> 
      <P>Since most of the Conventions concerning seafarers do not apply to fishermen, a series of texts have been adopted for this category of workers. They cover matters such as the minimum age for admission to employment as fishermen <A HREF="">(Convention No. 112 of 1959)</A>, medical examinations <A HREF="">(Convention No. 113 of 1959)</A>, articles of agreement <A HREF="">(Convention No. 114 of 1959)</A>, competency certificates <A HREF="">(Convention No. 125 of 1966)</A>, accommodation of crews <A HREF="">(Convention No. 126 of 1966)</A> and vocational training <A HREF="">(Recommendation No. 126, of 1966)</A>.</P> 
      <A NAME="older"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Older workers</FONT><BR> 
      <P>The <A HREF="">Older Workers Recommendation, 1980 (No. 162)</A> , applies to all workers who are liable to encounter difficulties in employment and occupation because of advancement in age. It recommends that States take steps to promote equality of opportunity and treatment for older workers, to improve the work conditions and working environment at all stages of working life, help older workers in preparation for and access to retirement.</P> 
      <A NAME="plantn"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Plantation workers</FONT><BR> 
      <P>Many international labour standards apply to agricultural workers, either because they are general in scope or because they provide for the application to agriculture of some given rights or protective measure (for example as regards freedom of association, social security or annual holidays). In addition to those standards, the International Labour Conference adopted in 1958 the <A HREF="">Plantations Convention, 1958 (No. 110)</A> and <A HREF="">Recommendation (No. 110)</A> which provide for the application to plantation workers of a wide range of standards, including some relating to freedom of association, migrant workers, contracts of employment, wages, holidays, maternity protection, workmen's compensation, labour inspection, housing and medical care. Similarly, the <A HREF="">Tenants and Share-Croppers Recommendation, 1968 (No. 132)</A> suggests a series of measures to be taken in order to improve the conditions of work and of life of tenants, sharecroppers and other categories of agricultural workers.</P> 
      <A NAME="dockers"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Dockworkers</FONT><BR> 
      <P>The need for special measures regulating conditions of work of dockworkers is reflected in a number of standards, mentioned under occupational health and safety. More recently, the ILO has adopted two important instruments on the subject, namely the <A HREF="">Dock Work Convention, 1973 (No. 137)</A> and <A HREF="">Recommendation No. 145</A> . These instruments address the social repercussions of new methods of cargo handling in docks. These texts state that there should be a national policy to promote the regular employment of dockworkers, and indicate the means by which this policy must be implemented.</P> 
      <A NAME="nursing"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Nursing personnel</FONT><BR> 
      <P>The <A HREF="">Nursing Personnel Convention, 1977 (No. 149)</A> , supplemented by <A HREF="">Recommendation No. 157</A> , concern the employment, training, career development, remuneration, hours of work and rest periods, health protection, and social security of nurses and their participation in the determination of conditions affecting their employment.</P> 
      <A NAME="hotel"><BR> 
      <H3><Font color="#7D6241">Hotel and restaurant personnel</FONT><BR> 
      <P>The <A HREF="">Working Conditions (Hotel and Restaurants) Convention, 1991 (No. 172)</A> , supplemented by <A HREF="">Recommendation No. 179</A> , addresses the unique occupational situation of these workers, covering such subjects as working hours, annual leave, remunerative practices, the sale of employment (prohibition).</P></TD> 
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